This story is about
a tank commander who destroyed 258 enemy vehicles, but he never
was awarded the Knights Cross. He was never presented to Hitler,
he never wore a fancy black uniform with death heads and S.S.
runes, and he never commanded a Panther or a Tiger. The reason?
He was an American G.I., and he set the above record in a Sherman
tank! Contrary to popular belief, other countries besides Germany
were capable of producing tank aces too.
Staff Sergeant Lafayette G. Pool was typical of some of the
fine tankers produced by the U.S. Army during World War II. Pool
was born on July 23,1919, on a farm in Odem, Texas. He graduated
from high school in Taft, Texas in 1938. Pool tried to enlist
in the Navy. He was turned down due to an eye injury, although
his twin brother was accepted. He then enrolled in an all boys
Catholic Academy where he graduated as class valedictorian. Afterwards,
he enrolled in Texas, A and I College, as an engineering major.
He quit to enlist in the Army on June 13, 1941. He took basic
training at San Antonio, Texas, and then was sent to Camp Beauregard,
Louisiana, to the newly forming Third Armored Division. Pool
joined the Third Battalion, 32nd Armored Regt, when the division
was reorganized in January of 1942. He took time out from training
to get married to Evelyn Wright in December of 1942.
Pool had been a boxer in college and he joined the divisions
golden gloves team. He became regional champ in his weight class
and was to go to the national meet in Chicago, Illinois in the
spring of 1942. He turned down the opportunity because the division
had gotten a shipment of new M-4 Sherman Tanks and Pool wanted
to start training with his men on the M-4 immediately.
Pool was a tall, lanky 6'3" Texan, who drove his men
and himself and trained them rigorously. He always wanted things
done right and would not tolerate slipshod methods, whether in
maintenance, gunnery, or driving. He demanded the best out of
his men and got it.
The 3rd Bn, 32nd Armor moved to the Desert Training Center
near Victorville, California, followed by final training at Indiantown
Before sailing for England in September, 1943, Pool was promoted
to Staff Sergeant in Company I. He was also given the opportunity
to go to OCS, but he turned it down as he later was to turn down
a battlefield commission stating "I just want to have one
of the best tank crews in the division."
His crew consisted of driver, Wilbert "Baby" Richards,
one of the best drivers in the ETO according to Pool; Bert "Schoolboy"
Close who was just seventeen years old and was his the bow gunner.
Given the choice of prison on a manslaughter rap or the Army,
Del "jailbird" Boggs elected to be Pool's loader. Willis
"Groundhog" Oiler was the gunner. Pool said of Oiler,
"He could shoot the eyebrows off a gnat at 1500 yards."
He was very quick and alert. One time near Origny in France,
it was getting dark when the order came down to halt and coil
up for the night. Pool opened his mouth to say "Driver Halt,"
but found himself looking down the barrel of a German 88mm in
the gloom ahead. He said "Gunner, Fire!" and Oiler,
without hesitation, holed the enemy gun before its crew could
recognize the Sherman Tank.
While in England, Pool did some more boxing. In Liverpool
in early 1944 he boxed against Joe Louis. It was meant to be
an exhibition bout, but Pool got a little to enthusiastic and
rapped Louis a few good ones. Louis put his arm around Pool and
said, "White man, I'm going to teach you a big lesson. "He
then proceeded to give Pool a good going over, although there
was no knockout.
Pool was what we would call today a "hard charger."
He was also inclined to have things his own way. He believed
that the quickest way home was to smash the German Army to pieces,
and he believed that he was the guy with the crew and the tank
that could do it. He made friends easily and also made enemies.
He had a quick temper and was not above ignoring orders when
they didn't suit him.
Pool landed at Normandy in June, 1944. His battalion fought
its first engagement on June 29, 1944 near Villier-Fossard, northeast
of St. Lo.
The loss of Pool's first tank "In the Mood," (all
succeeding tanks were named "In the Mood!") was to
a Panzerfaust at the village of Les Forges not far from the beachhead.
Pool's crew survived and got a new Sherman, and pushed on undauntedly
against the panzers.
Falaise Gap on August 7,1944, was the big battle and Pool
was, as usual, right up front. As the 3rd Armored Division was
near to closing the ring with the British forces around the Germans,
Lt. Col. Walter B. Richardson, commanding task force Y of CCA.
32nd Armored heard Pool say over the radio "Ain't got the
heart to kill um," meaning the Germans. The rattle of machine
gun fire came over the radio followed by Pool's Texas drawl "Watch
the bastards run, - give it to 'em Close."
At Fromentel, Pool's tank headed the task force Y column as
usual which closed the gap. During the closing, Pool's second
tank was destroyed by enemy bombers, which only made Pool more
mad at the Germans. Again the crew survived intact. At Colombrier,
France, Pool's tank leading the column almost collided with a
Panther. The Panther fired twice and missed. Oiler, the gunner,
fired a single shot which penetrated the turret and internal
explosions blew the turret clean off the hull of the Panther.
At Namur, Belgium, "In the Mood's" crew destroyed
sixteen enemy vehicles, including assault guns, self-propelled
anti-tank guns, plus several armored personnel carriers in one
day. At Dison, Belgium, Pool distinguished himself while acting
as a platoon leader. He decided to use his own tank to clean
out an annoying pocket of resistance on the left flank of the
route they were traveling. After finding and destroying six armored
personnel carriers Pool discovered that the head of his column
had been fired upon by a German Panther. Quickly he ordered his
driver to regain the column. Upon arriving upon the scene of
the action he spotted the enemy tank, gave a single estimated
range to Oiler. The gunner fired an A.P. projectile at 1,500
yards to destroy the Panther.
The column then moved on with Pool again in his customary
place in the lead. Although Pool had two tanks knocked out from
under him, he had nerves of steel. His crew drew added confidence
from his bearing and as a result they moved as a single unit,
like clockwork. Pool's one problem was that he was claustrophobic
and preferred to remain, as much as possible, on the outside
of his tank. Col. Richardson said that Pool rode his tank like
a "bucking bronco." He was always exposed in the turret
or on top of it. His driver, Richards, shared his commander's
condition in that he always drove with his overhead hatch open,
having been trapped once with a jammed hatch. Corporal Richards
said "Pool hated the Germans and thought he could lick them
all. The men would draw straws to see who would lead the spearhead
the next day. Pool would just say, 'Ah'm leading this time,'
and stand there grinning while we cussed him out."
Pool's luck ran out at the town of Munsterbusch, south of
Aachen, Germany, on September 19, 1944, while leading the breakthrough
through the Westwall. The crew was due to rotate home in a few
days for a war bond tour. "In the Mood" was not leading
this time but was a flank guard for the task force that day.
Pool spotted a heavy anti-tank gun hidden in a house. They had
a substitute loader that day as Boggs was sent back for a hearing
check-up prior to their rotating to the states. The new guy shoved
a round in the breech of the 76mm gun and jammed it.
Unable to fire Pool yelled "Back up baby!" as the
first shell hit the turret blowing Pool off the tank onto the
ground. He landed running and his right leg folded like an accordion.
He quickly gave himself a morphine injection, sat down and tried
to cut his shattered leg off with his pocket knife. Meanwhile,
a second shell hit the tank well forward as Richards backed the
tank up slowly. To Richards, Oiler, the loader and Close, there
was only the bell sound of the hit, the stench of powder and
shower of sparks. Richards didn't know that Pool had been thrown
clear of the turret and kept on backing up. Col. Richardson saw
"In the Mood" slowly reach a cut bank and, as if in
slow motion, topple over, almost upside down.
Oiler felt the blood on his legs and knew that he had been
wounded. The others were unhurt and all four crawled out of the
Col. Richardson came up to Pool and gave him another shot
of morphine. Aid men then reached Pool who was bleeding badly
from the splinter wound. They gave him a third shot of morphine.
Two of them quickly attended to Oiler. Pool cursed the Germans
bitterly as the aid men bandaged his wound. As they put him on
the litter he twisted suddenly and said, "Somebody take
care of my tank."
The war was over for Lafayette G. Pool. He knew that he and his
crew could beat the Germans. He proved it so often that his record
is almost an unbelievable document of total victory. The amazing
score compiled by the Texan and his crew is fully authenticated
by the Third Armored Division. Pool was twice nominated for the
Medal of Honor. The first time the papers were lost, the second
time it was turned down as the higher-ups felt that it was a
crew, not an individual effort. He was awarded the Distinguished
Service Cross, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Purple Heart, French
Croix de Guerre, with Bronze Star, Belgium Fourragere, and Order
of St. George Medal.
Pool's career was far from over though, but first he had an
ordeal that he had to go through with his wounded right leg.
After three shots of morphine he awoke nineteen days later in
a hospital in Belgium. Due to rain and exposure, he contracted
double pneumonia. He did not get back to the states until January,
1945. When he was wounded he weighed 196 pounds and when he returned
to the United States he weighed 85 pounds! The bone in his leg
from the knee to the ankle was gone but his toenail would still
grow, so doctors hesitated to amputate. Later they amputated
it eight inches above the knee at Temple, Texas Army Hospital.
He was discharged in June of 1946, and went home with an artificial
leg, later to farm and run a gas station. In 1948 he was called
back to active duty along with seven other amputees because of
their technical skills as specialists.
He returned as a staff sergeant and taught tank mechanics
as a master mechanic. After a promotion to Warrant Officer in
1952, he worked as an ordnance inspector. He was classified as
"Z.I." (no duty out of zone of interior).
While at Fort Knox, he was offered the job as technical advisor
for the movie "The Tanks are Coming" (released in 1951).
He refused, and decided to sue Warner Brothers for one million
dollars. He was under contract to Universal Studios for his life
story and he felt that Warner Brothers plagiarized his script.
The judge ruled that Warner Brothers had changed the names and
scenario in their version enough that it was not an infringement.
Pool thought that actor Steve Cochran, in the Warner Brothers
version, did do a good portrayal of himself, although the name
in this movie was changed to "Sgt. Sullivan."
Pool retired from the Army as a Chief Warrant Officer Second
Class, at Ft. Sam Houston, Texas on September 19,1960. Afterwards
he went to business college, followed by a job as a preacher
for $25.00 a week. He also coached little league.
In 1986, while living quietly in Taft, Texas, he was contacted
by 3-32 Armor members who were doing research on the unit history.
He was invited to visit them at Ft. Hood. He was very surprised
to find out that they remembered him. The first thing that he
did when he got to Ft. Hood was go for a ride in an M1 tank.
Afterwards, Pool told the young 3-32 tankers gathered around
him some of the differences between being a tanker in WWII and
being one today. "The most important thing for a tank commander
to do is to keep his crew alive. The tank crews today have the
technology to do what we had to do with our eyes and ears,"
Pool said. "We did very little fighting at night."
He added, "I only fought once at night and I never wanted
to do it again. Today you have the thermal sighting capability
that we didn't have."
On his third visit to the post, he watched the tanks live
fire on the range. "Colonel, if we had the equipment back
then that you have now, we would have cleaned up," he told
the commander of the 3-32nd Armor. The colonel said of Pool,
"I want him to talk to the soldiers. He tells them the same
kinds of things that I try to teach them, but coming from him
it's special because he's lived it."
Later Pool was the honored guest speaker at the battalion
NCO ball. Three hundred and twenty-five NCO's attended. Lafayette
was adopted by the 3-32 Armor and he, in turn, adopted them,
referring to them as "His boys."
Desert Storm found the 3-32 Armor in the thick of battle against
the Iraqi Armor. Lafayette was in a hospital bed, very ill, but
he watched the war constantly on television, fretting and worrying
about "his boys." When the fighting had ceased, he
kept asking his wife Evelyn, "Honey, are my boys back yet?"
When they finally got back to Fort Hood, Evelyn told him they
were back and soon after this on May 30,1991, Pool passed away
in his sleep.
Pool was survived by his wife Evelyn, three sons and four
daughters. One other son, Capt. Jerry L. Pool, was missing in
action in Cambodia in 1970. Before his death the Army decided
to name its new Ml tank driver training simulator facility after
Pool, even waving the fact that he was still alive. Dedicated
on July 1, 1993, today the facility at Ft. Knox serves to train
new tank drivers to drive the Ml series of tanks.
At present the facility has ten systems of two simulators
each. One system has been converted to Ml AR configuration. The
authors were able to try out a simulator, thanks to Irene Armstrong
- secretary of protocol, and found it an excellent approach to
learning to drive. The savings in fuel, thrown tracks, and wear
and tear, plus damage to the real tanks is tremendous, and it
will more than pay for its initial cost.
Each new tanker is given twelve hours of training before he
transitions into the real thing. Scenarios can be varied from
desert and arctic terrain to urban driving. Weather can vary,
artillery fire can be received, the tank's main gun can be fired
by the controller, plus night or day time driving with open hatches
or closed down on periscopes. All these things make this simulator
the closest thing to actual driving a real tank to date. Our
controller, SFC Byrd, told us the simulator is much more difficult
than actually driving the "real" M1.
Today Lafayette G. Pool is remembered not only as our top
tank ace but also as a man who believed in training hard and
doing the job right the first time, as there may not be a second
time in modem warfare.
The authors' sources:
Interviews with Evelyn Pool.
Killeen Herald: vol. 35 #113.
Reprint from Yank, the Army Weekly written during WWII.
Turret (Ft. Knox newspaper); November 21, 1991.
Tribune Herald Tuesday: May 5,1987.
Speech by Col. Brewster - July 1, 1993 during dedication of
Pool Hall; Ft. Knox, Kentucky.
Disposition Form-SB-WP-ASD (350) on Naming New
Building for Driver Training Simulator, Oct. 5,1988.
Killeen Daily Herald: August 29,1987; "World War
Tells Hood Tankers 'stay alive'"